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Reconstructing the echema AIANEOEANE (Alia musica) on the base of neumes in Hartvic (D-Mbs clm 14272)

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

clm 14272, fol. 177v

Tonary of the alia musica compilation (manuscript M) with neumed intonations, psalmody, and glossed tonaries, music theoretical collection of the Abbey St Emmeram, Regensburg (1006-1028).

When I published my article about this particular intonation:

Gerlach, O., 2011. About the Import of the Byzantine Intonation AIANEOEANE in an 11th-Century Tonary. In M. Altripp, ed. Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe: Akten des Kolloquiums „Byzanz in Europa“ vom 11. bis 15. Dezember 2007 in Greifswald. Turnhout: Brepols, S. 172–183. Available at:

Hartvic's tonary was not yet online, so that I could reconstruct the original echema as it was notated in this manuscript. It is one of those with a melisma and the last syllable:

The text (Chailley 1965, 141):

Hoc quoque senties canendo A[punctum]I[virga cum episema]A[virga cum episema]-NE[climacus/pressus?]O[punctum]E[pes]A[pes]NE[clinis, salicus & torculus].

Siquidem a paramese [♮], peracta quarta specie diapente, ad lichanos hypaton [D] descendit, et ad lichanos meson [G] per singulas chordas ascendendo diapente intendit, rursusque ad trite diezeugmenon [c] gravando remittit; ad extremum in sua finali hoc est hypate meson [E] definitum.

I think we could do this reconstruction work together, based on this source.

Any suggestions, how this echema AIANEOEANE should sound like according to the neumes and the verbal description?

You might download this graphic to insert letter notation:

Tags: AIANEOEANE, AliaMusica, Hucbald, Tonary

Views: 364

Replies to This Discussion

I certainly would choose the high fourth, given, if starting from C, by the interval C - F+ (11/8) or starting from D, D - G+ (99/64). But it doesn't make a tritone, it is, starting from C, between F and F#. To return to the (pure) E mode, E - F is high (11/10), E - G is high also (approx. G+), the fourth E - A may be pure i.e. 4/3 or high (depending on the vowel and the word); the fifth is pure, and then the interval H - C (sido, above the fifth) is the same semi-tone as E - F. All this can be sung easily. These are the intervals I recommand for singing e.g. the extraordinary verse Beati immaculati in via, of Offertory Benedictus es ... in labiis, which sounds very much as a Spanish cante jondo (or flamenco): a similar treatment of the E mode, that prooves that the cante jondo comes from the ancient Iberico-Gallo-Roman tradition and not from some Arabic influence.

You did not answer my question which intervals you would choose for the descending direction as described by the author of the tonary compiled wihtin alia musica...

Would you choose the pure fourth between C—F, if you descend from G?

Sorry, I missed the word 'descend'. Good question. For the ascending interval G - A (fourth to the fifth), I sing sometimes G as the pure fourth of D (it depends also on the vowel); but if descending down to D, I certainly sing a high G+, this gives the descending scale A G+ F+ E D. The interval E - F+ or F+ - E, is characteristic of the E mode. A good and simple example: antiphon Nigra sum sed formosa.

What are the proportions, if you sing G+? I understood that the fourth species of the fifth is between G and d...

And how would you understand the melos presented by the echema, if you try to read the neumes that they fit to this description?

Starting from D, D-E (10/9), E-F+ (11/10), F+-G+ (9/8) flexible, D-G+= C-F+ (11/8). Now, what do you mean by "fourth species of the fifth"? In which scale D or E?

For the main question, what notes or what echema do you choose? I can't follow the suggestion of your paper p.179 because you don't follow the neumes, the pressus, the two pes, the clivis, the salicus and the torculus. But the intervals would be, as before: D E F+ G G+ A H, A G+ F+ E. Note that the salicus is often used between E and F+, more precisely on E F F+. It's better to discuss (and sing) on the phone since misunderstandings appear easily. Until when is your address in Provence valid?

Please forget about my essay, because this was the intonation or echema which I developed on the base of the Byzantine practice.

I had nothing better, because I did not know any neumed facsimile of a manuscript close to Chailley's edition. The one of Hartvic I did not know yet. My suggestion was to do the reconstruction of Hartvic here together...

You can download the last graphic in my discussion, and upload it in your answer together with your letters (if you use G, F+ or G+, I think it is clear now), so that anyone here can see your suggestion.

Of course, everyone here is invited to do the same... whatever the intervals might be you would like to use!

I think the author of this treatise was still aware that this "deuterus" was in fact a "tetartos echos" which is clearly expressed by the echema ἅγια νεανὲς. This was his/her reason to mention the 4th species of the diapente which was G—d according to the Western system where mele of the tetrardus had to finish on G (in Byzantine chant this practice was more flexible, it could be on C—G as well, and a fifth higher G—d the upper tetrachord required an f sharp). In both cases this means that G was unmoveable at least with respect to mele belonging to diatonic tetartos echoi.

But I did not wish to disturb you, you can just go on as you think it is right!

If the salicus is E—F—F+, on which pitch you wish to end the torculus? On which pitch should be the punctum at the beginning?

(partial answer)

I didn't mean that in the manuscript the salicus is on E F F+; it was simply a remark and this prooves that E-F is a larg interval, actually E-F+. Following the manuscript, it could be on D E F+ and then G A G (toculus); or E F F+ and G A G; or E F G and G A G or A h A. But we have first to understand wether it is a deuterus or a tetrardus. I have only the formulae given in Huglo's Les Tonaires.

With all respect Huglo does not help here, because he never tried to transcribe the echema AIANEOEANE!

But concerning alia musica you can have a look at Chailley's edition and check with the manuscript, it was obviously classified as a deuterus due to the base note E, but the tetartos melos is somehow present by mentioning the fourth species of pentachord as a kind of melodic frame which separates the upper from the lower register.

I read your remark "Note that the salicus is often used between E and F+, more precisely on E F F+." as a hint that this could be a possible way to transcribe the salicus in this echema.

At least, I can say that I agree with your method!

Concrete this means, the punctum of the beginning is likely to be an E or G, according to the description rather G and than it descends to D, while the torculus must somehow find a way back to E.

Yes, it makes sense (I would rather start on G). We settle this soon (I call).



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